Article 1 Application of the Present Rules and Jurisdiction of the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS)
The purpose of the present Rules is to provide, in the interests of the athletes and of sport, for the resolution by arbitration of any disputes covered by Rule 61 of the Olympic Charter, insofar as they arise during the Olympic Games or during a period of ten days preceding the Opening Ceremony of the Olympic Games.
In the case of a request for arbitration against a decision pronounced by the IOC, an NOC, an International Federation or an Organising Committee for the Olympic Games, the claimant must, before filing such request, have exhausted all the internal remedies available to her/him pursuant to the statutes or regulations of the sports body concerned, unless the time needed to exhaust the internal remedies would make the appeal to the CAS Ad Hoc Division ineffective.
Article 2 Ad hoc Division
For the period fixed in Article 1, the ICAS shall establish an ad hoc Division of the CAS (hereinafter the “ad hoc Division”), the function of which is to provide for the resolution by arbitration of the disputes covered by Article 1 by means of Panels set up in accordance with the present Rules.
The ad hoc Division consists of arbitrators appearing on a special list, a President, a Co-president and a Court Office.
Article 3 Special List of Arbitrators
The ICAS, acting through its Board, shall draw up the special list of arbitrators referred to in Article 2.
This special list consists only of arbitrators who appear on the CAS general list of arbitrators and who are present at the OG. None of these arbitrators may act for the CAS Anti-doping Division during the same edition of the OG, nor thereafter in matters connected to the said edition of the OG.
The special list of arbitrators shall be published before the opening of the OG. It may be subsequently modified by the ICAS Board.
Article 4 Presidency
The ICAS Board shall elect the President and the Co-president of the ad hoc Division from among the members of the ICAS. The President shall perform the functions conferred upon him by the present Rules and all other functions relevant to the proper operation of the ad hoc Division. The Co-president may substitute for the President at any time.
The President and the Co-president must be independent of the parties and, where necessary, disqualify themselves in one another's favour.
Article 5 Court Office
The CAS shall establish a Court Office of the ad hoc Division on the site of the Olympic Games. Such office shall be placed under the authority of the CAS Secretary General.
Article 6 Language of Arbitration
The arbitration shall be conducted in English, French or Spanish as determined by the President of the ad hoc Division.
Article 7 Seat of Arbitration and Law Governing the Arbitration
The seat of the ad hoc Division and of each Panel is in Lausanne, Switzerland. However, the ad hoc Division and each Panel may carry out all the actions which fall within their mission at the site of the Olympic Games or in any other place they deem appropriate.
The arbitration is governed by Chapter 12 of the Swiss Act on Private International Law.
Article 8 Representation and Assistance
The parties may be represented or assisted by persons of their choice insofar as circumstances permit, particularly with regard to the time limit set for the award. The names, addresses, telephone and facsimile numbers of the persons representing the parties and details of any other written forms of electronic communication by which they may be reached shall appear in the application referred to in Article 10 or be submitted at the start of the hearing.
Article 9 Notifications and Communications
a) All notifications and communications from the ad hoc Division (Panel, Presidency or Court Office) shall be given as follows :
- to the claimant : by delivery to the address at the OG site appearing in the request or at the electronic mail address specified in the request or, in the absence of all of the above, by deposit at the Court Office.
- to the respondent : by delivery or electronic mail to his or her office or place of residence at the site of the OG.
The ad hoc Division may also give notifications and communications by telephone and confirm them subsequently in writing, or by electronic mail. In the absence of written confirmation, the communication is nevertheless valid if the addressee had actual knowledge of it.
b) Notifications and communications from the parties shall be delivered or emailed to the Court Office with the exception of the application referred to in article 10 which must be delivered to the Court Office, which will issue a time-dated receipt.
Article 10 Application
Any individual or legal entity wishing to bring before the ad hoc Division of the CAS a dispute within the meaning of Article 1 of the present Rules shall file a written application with the Court Office.
The application shall include :
- a copy of the decision being challenged, where applicable ;
- a brief statement of the facts and legal arguments on which the application is based ;
- the claimant’s request for relief ;
- where applicable, an application for a stay of the effects of the decision being challenged or for any other preliminary relief of an extremely urgent nature ;
- any appropriate comments on the basis for CAS jurisdiction;
- the claimant’s address at the site of the OG and, where applicable, the electronic mail address at which the claimant can be reached for the purposes of the proceedings and, where applicable, the same information for the person representing the claimant.
The application shall be written in English, French or Spanish. A standard application form is available to the parties at the Court Office.
If the National Olympic Committees concerned are not parties to the proceedings and do not receive a copy of the application in that capacity, this application shall be communicated to them for information purposes.
Article 11 Formation of the Panel
Upon receipt of the application, the President of the ad hoc Division constitutes a Panel composed of three arbitrators appearing on the special list described in Article 2 of the Rules (the “Panel”) and appoints the President thereof.
In the event that it appears appropriate under the circumstances, the President of the ad hoc Division may, in his discretion, appoint a sole arbitrator.
If an application is filed which is related to an arbitration already pending before the ad hoc Division, the President of the ad hoc Division may assign the second dispute to the Panel appointed to decide the first dispute. In order to decide upon such assignment, the President of the ad hoc Division shall take into account all the circumstances, including the relation between the two cases and the progress already made in the first case.
The Court Office shall convey the application to the Panel.
Article 12 Independence and Qualifications of the Arbitrators
All arbitrators must have legal training and possess recognized competence with regard to sport. They must be independent of the parties and disclose immediately any circumstance likely to compromise their independence.
All arbitrators must be present during the OG and be available for the ad hoc Division at any time. The President of the ad hoc Division is subject to the same obligations.
No CAS arbitrator may act as counsel for a party or other interested person before the ad hoc Division.
Article 13 Challenge, Disqualification and Removal of Arbitrators
An arbitrator must disqualify him- or herself voluntarily or, failing that, may be challenged by a party if circumstances give rise to legitimate doubts as to his or her independence. The President of the ad hoc Division is competent to take cognizance of any challenge requested by a party. She/he shall decide upon the challenge immediately after giving the parties and the arbitrator concerned the opportunity to be heard, insofar as circumstances permit. Any challenge must be brought as soon as the reason for the challenge becomes known.
Any arbitrator may be removed by the President of the ad hoc Division if she/he is prevented from carrying out the assignment or fails to perform her/his duties in accordance with the present Rules.
If an arbitrator disqualifies her- or himself voluntarily or if the President of the ad hoc Division accepts a challenge by a party or removes an arbitrator, the President of the ad hoc Division shall immediately appoint an arbitrator to fill the vacancy.
Article 14 Stay of Decision Challenged and Preliminary Relief of Extreme Urgency
In case of extreme urgency, the Panel, where already formed, or otherwise the President of the ad hoc Division, may rule on an application for a stay of the effects of the challenged decision or for any other preliminary relief without hearing the respondent first. The decision granting such relief ceases to be effective when the Panel gives a decision within the meaning of article 20 of the present Rules.
When deciding whether to award any preliminary relief, the President of the ad hoc Division or the Panel, as the case may be, shall consider whether the relief is necessary to protect the applicant from irreparable harm, the likelihood of success on the merits of the claim, and whether the interests of the applicant outweigh those of the opponent or of other members of the Olympic Community.
Article 15 Procedure before the Panel
a) Defence of lack of jurisdiction
Any defence of lack of jurisdiction of the Panel must be raised at the start of the proceedings or, at the latest, at the start of the hearing.
The Panel organizes the procedure as it considers appropriate while taking into account the specific needs and circumstances of the case, the interests of the parties, in particular their right to be heard, and the particular constraints of speed and efficiency specific to the present ad hoc procedure. The Panel shall have full control over the evidentiary proceedings.
Except where it considers another form of procedure more appropriate, the Panel shall summon the parties to a hearing on very short notice immediately upon receipt of the application. It shall append a copy of the application to the summons to appear addressed to the respondent. Unless the Panel decides otherwise in compliance with the sanitary measures in force, the hearing shall be held by video-conference or by telephone conference.
At the hearing, the Panel shall hear the parties and take all appropriate action with respect to evidence. The parties shall introduce at the hearing all the evidence they intend to adduce and produce the witnesses, who shall be heard immediately.
If it considers itself to be sufficiently well informed, the Panel may decide not to hold a hearing and to render an award immediately.
d) Other evidentiary measures
If a party requests an opportunity to introduce additional evidence which, for legitimate reasons, it was not able to produce at the hearing, the Panel may permit such introduction to the extent necessary to the resolution of the dispute.
The Panel may at any time take any appropriate action with respect to evidence. In particular, it may appoint an expert and order the production of documents, information or any other evidence. It may also, in its discretion, decide whether to admit or exclude evidence offered by the parties and assess the weight of evidence. The Panel shall inform the parties accordingly.
e) Failure to appear
If any party fails to appear at the hearing or to comply with injunctions, summonses or other communications issued by the Panel, the Panel may nevertheless proceed.
Article 16 The Panel’s Power to Review
The Panel shall have full power to establish the facts on which the application is based.
Article 17 Law Applicable
The Panel shall rule on the dispute pursuant to the Olympic Charter, the applicable regulations, general principles of law and the rules of law, the application of which it deems appropriate.
Article 18 Time limit
The Panel shall give a decision within 24 hours of the lodging of the application. In exceptional cases, this time limit may be extended by the President of the ad hoc Division if circumstances so require.
Article 19 Decision-making, Form and Communication of the Decision
Decisions are taken by a majority or, in the absence of a majority, by the President of the Panel. It shall be written, dated and signed by the President of the Panel and, in principle, brief reasons will be stated. Before the award is signed, it shall be reviewed by the President of the ad hoc Division, who may make amendments of form and, without affecting the Panel’s freedom of decision may also draw the latter’s attention to points of substance.
It shall be communicated to the parties immediately. The Panel may decide to communicate the operative portion of the award, prior to the reasons. The award shall be final from such communication.
If the National Olympic Committees concerned are not parties to the proceedings and do not receive a copy of the award in that capacity, this award shall be communicated to them for information purposes.
Article 20 Enforceability and Scope of the Decision
a) Choice of final award or referral
Taking into account all the circumstances of the case, including the claimant’s request for relief, the nature and complexity of the dispute, the urgency of its resolution, the extent of the evidence required and of the legal issues to be resolved, the parties’ right to be heard and the state of the record at the end of the ad hoc arbitration proceedings, the Panel may either make a final award or refer the dispute to arbitration by the CAS in accordance with the Code of Sports-related Arbitration. The Panel may also make an award on part of the dispute and refer the unresolved part of the dispute to regular CAS procedure.
b) Preliminary relief in case of referral
If it refers the dispute to regular CAS procedure, the Panel may, even where the parties have made no application to that effect, grant preliminary relief which will remain in effect until the arbitrators decide otherwise in the regular CAS procedure.
If the Panel refers the dispute to regular CAS procedure, the following provisions shall apply :
i) The Panel may set a time limit for the claimant to bring the case before the CAS according to Articles R38 and R48 of the Code of Sports-related Arbitration or provide for referral on its own motion (“ex officio referral”). In either case, the time limits laid down by the statutes or regulations of the bodies the decision of which is being challenged or by Article R49 of the Code of Sports-related Arbitration do not apply.
ii) Depending on the nature of the case, the CAS Court Office shall assign the arbitration to the Ordinary Arbitration Division or to the Appeals Arbitration Division.
iii)The Panel formed during the OG remains assigned to the resolution of the dispute for purposes of regular CAS procedure and, by submitting to the present Rules, the parties waive any provision to the contrary in the Code of Sports-related Arbitration or in their agreement concerning the number of arbitrators and the way in which the Panel is formed.
iv) In the event of ex officio referral, the CAS Court Office shall take any appropriate action which may facilitate the initiation of the regular CAS procedure, having special regard to the present provision.
Article 21 Enforceability; no Remedies
The decision is enforceable immediately. It shall be final and binding upon the parties subject to recourse available in certain circumstances pursuant to Swiss Law within 30 days from the notification of the original decision. It may not be challenged by way of an action for setting aside to the extent that the parties have no domicile, habitual residence, or business establishment in Switzerland and that they have expressly excluded all setting aside proceedings in the arbitration agreement or in a subsequent agreement, in particular at the outset of the arbitration.
Article 22 Cost-free Nature of the Proceedings
The facilities and services of the CAS ad hoc Division, including the provision of arbitrators to the parties to a dispute, are free of charge.
However, the parties shall pay their own costs of legal representation, experts, witnesses and interpreters.
Article 23 Miscellaneous Provisions
The French, English and Spanish texts are authentic. In the event of any discrepancy, the French text shall prevail.
The present Rules have been adopted by the ICAS in New Delhi, on 14 October 2003 (amended on 8 July 2021), on the basis of Rule 61 of the Olympic Charter and Articles S6, paragraphs 1, 8 and 10, S8, S23 and R69 of the Code of Sports-related Arbitration. They form an integral part of the Code of Sports-related Arbitration.
The present Rules may be amended by the ICAS pursuant to Article S8 of the Code of Sports-related Arbitration.